Women: Attire
Women's Dress Code
For women's dress code, see individual listings under ATTIRE:
Introduction to Attire
Attire: Blessings/Torah/Prayer
Attire: Women: Tzni'ut
Attire: Married Women: Head Covering (Kisui Rosh)
Women: Bet Din
Women as Members of Bet Din
Women may not be members of a bet din.
Women: Blessings
Women: Birkat HaMazon
Women: Repeating Birkat HaMazon
For women and repeating birkat ha'mazon, see Birkat HaMazon: When To Repeat If Forgot Additions.
Women: Mezuman
For women's mezuman, see Birkat HaMazon: Women's Mezuman and Minyan.
Women: HaGomel
Women: HaGomel
For women and ha'gomel blessing, see Women and HaGomel.
Women: Kaddish
Women: Kaddish
For women and kaddish, see Kaddish: Who Should Say: Women .
Women: Kiddush Levana
Women: Kiddush Levana
For women and kiddush levana, see Kiddush Levana: Women.
Women: Saying Blessing for Others
Women: Saying a Blessing for Someone Else
For women and saying a blessing for someone else, see Blessings: Saying for Someone Else.  
Women: SheHecheyanu
SheHecheyanu: General Rules
For general rules of she'hecheyanu, see SheHecheyanu.
SheHecheyanu by Women
 For items over which especially women say she'hecheyanu, see Items on Which Women Say SheHecheyanu.
Women: Holidays
Women: Jewish Festivals: General Rules
Women: Starting Jewish Festivals
Women: Starting Jewish Festivals
For when women start Jewish festivals, or more on women's lighting Jewish festival candles, see:

Jewish Festivals: When Women Start: Candle-Lighting or Sunset
Jewish Festivals: Candles: When To Light
Jewish Festivals: Candles: Lighting before Blessing
Jewish Festivals: Mincha Before

Women: Jewish Festival Kiddush
Women: Who May Make Kiddush
For women's obligation to say or hear Jewish festival morning kiddush, see Jewish Festivals: Kiddush: Who May Make.
Women: Minimum Prayer before Jewish Festival Kiddush
For women and minimum prayer before eating prior to Jewish festival kiddush, see Women and Minimum Prayer before Jewish Festival Kiddush.
Women: Makeup on Jewish Festivals
Women: Makeup on Jewish Festivals
For women and applying makeup on Jewish Festivals, see Jewish Festivals: Makeup.
Women: Jewish Festival Havdala
Women: Jewish Festival Havdala
For women and saying/hearing Jewish festival havdala, see Baruch HaMavdil Bein Kodesh L'Chol To Do Melacha.
Women: Passover
Women: Drinking Wine at Seder
For women and drinking wine at seder, see Everyone Must Drink at Seder.
Women: Leaning at Seder
For women and leaning at the seder, see Leaning to the Left.
Women: Rosh Hashana
Women: Hearing Shofar
For women and hearing shofar, see Rosh Hashana: How Many Shofar Blasts To Hear.
Women: Blowing Shofar
For women and blowing shofar, see Woman Blowing Shofar.
Women: Sukkot
Women: Lulav
For Women and Lulav, see Lulav: Who Should Bless: Women.
Women: Sukka
For Women and Sukka, see Women: Eating Outside the Sukka.
Women: Yom Kippur
Women: When the Yom Kippur Fast Starts
For women and when the Yom Kippur fast starts, see Yom Kippur: When To Start.
Women: Chol HaMoed
Women: Cutting Nails on Chol HaMoed
For women and cutting nails on chol ha'moed, see Chol HaMoed: Cutting Nails.

Women: Rabbinic Holidays
Women: Chanuka
Women: Chanuka
For women and obligation to light Chanuka candles, see:
Chanuka: Candles: Obligation for Women To Light
Chanuka: Candles: Wife May Light for Husband
Women: Commandments (Mitzvot)
Women: Time-Based Positive Commandments (Mitzvot)
Women: Time-Based Positive Commandments (Mitzvot): Exemptions
Women: Exemption from Time-Dependent Positive Commandments
Women and girls are generally exempt from time-dependent positive commandments (mitzvot), but they may perform these voluntary mitzvot and if they do, they do say the relevant blessings:
  • Lulav
  • Sukka
  • Saying the full shema.
Women and girls may NOT do these time-dependent positive commandments (mitzvot):
  • Kiddush levana
  • Tefilin
  • Tzitzit.
Women: Time-Based Positive Commandments (Mitzvot): Obligations
Women: Time-Based Positive Mitzva Obligations
Although women and girls are generally exempt from time-dependent positive commandments (mitzvot), they may do some mitzvot for which they are not obligated and it is considered to be virtuous behavior for which they will get a reward. They may say the blessings before each mitzva.

1. These are voluntary mitzvot that women may do:

  • Lulav

  • Sukka

  • Saying the full shema.

2. Women and girls MAY NOT  wear tefilin.


3. Women traditionally do not:

  • Say tachanun

  • Wear talit or tzitzit (talit katan).

  • Study gemara.

  • Say kiddush levana or birkat ha'chama.

But these are not forbidden.

Women: Time-Based Positive Commandments/Mitzvot: Obligations
In addition to prayer obligations (see Women: Minimal Prayer), women and girls 12 years old and up are required to keep these time-dependent positive commandments, among others:
  • Candle-lighting for Chanuka (see Chanuka: Candles: Who Should Light )
  • Candle-lighting for Shabbat, Jewish festivals, Rosh Hashana, and Yom Kippur.
  • Havdala (say or hear) after Shabbat, Jewish festivals, Rosh Hashana, and Yom Kippur.
  • Kiddush (say or hear) on the first night (or first two nights outside Eretz Yisrael) of every Jewish festival, and also the next morning.
  • Passover (all commandments, including eating matza at the Passover seder).
    Note Because she must eat matza, she must therefore say birkat ha'mazon afterward (so if a woman omits ya'ale v'yavo in birkat ha'mazon at the seder, she must repeat birkat ha'mazon!).
  • Megila on Purim.
  • Shabbat (For why women must keep time-dependent, positive commandments on Shabbat, see Introduction to Shabbat )
  • Shofar on Rosh Hashana.
    Note Jewish women universally accepted upon themselves to hear shofar on Rosh Hashana, but they only need to hear 30 blasts.
  • Hearing the reading of Parashat Zachor.
Women: Mayim Achronim
See Birkat HaMazon: Mayim Achronim.
Women: Mourning
Women: Kri'a
Women: Kri'a
For women and kri'a, see Women and Kri'a.
Women: Public Consolation (Nichum Aveilim)
Women: Public Consolation (Nichum Aveilim)
For women and public consolation (nichum aveilim), see Women and Public Consolation after Kabbalat Shabbat.
Women: Shoveling
Women: Shoveling
For women and shoveling at the funeral, see Who Shovels.
Women: Shrouds
Women: Shrouds
For women and shrouds, see Shrouds, Hat, Robe.  
Women: Non-Intimate Contact and Yichud
Women: Non-Intimate Contact/Yichud
For women and non-intimate contact, see Contact (Negia).
For women and being alone with men, see Yichud.
Women: Prayer
Women: Bowing
Women: Bowing
For women and bowing, see Bowing: Women.
Women: Kaddish
Woman: Kaddish
See Kaddish: Who Should Say: Women.  
Women: Ya’aleh V’Yavo
Women: Ya'aleh V'Yavo
If a girl age 12 or up or a woman forgets to say ya'aleh v'yavo for the Jewish festival or Rosh Chodesh amida, she must repeat the prayer.  She does not repeat ya'aleh v'yavo in any birkat ha'mazon except the two seder nights.
Women: Minimum to Pray
Women: Minimum to Pray
The minimum amount of prayer that women and girls 12 years old and up must say varies according to several opinions:
  • Opinion that RMH approves of:
    • Birchot ha'shachar (from al netilat yadaim--to u'maflee la'asot)
    • Birchot haTorah (from la'asok b'divrei Torah--to notein haTorah)
    • Yevarechecha/Eilu divarim she'ein/Eilu divarim she'adam
    • Elohai neshama
    • Asher natan 'sechvi... gomel chasadim tovim l'amo Yisrael
    • Shema (first line of shema plus Baruch shem kevod malchuto l'olam va'ed)
    • If they choose to say the morning amida, they should precede it with emet, v'yatziv until ga'al yisrael.
  • Ramban: Women should say at least the amida of shacharit and of mincha.
  • Another opinion: Women must say some prayer every day (but it may be any type of prayer, not only the fixed prayer services).
  • Another opinion: Women do not need to say the amida and emet v'yatziv on Shabbat and Jewish festivals (that is, whenever we are not asking for anything). 
  • Women who have small children who require the mother's constant attention should not say any prayers except for birchot ha'shachar and birchot haTorah.
For more on women and the shema, see Women and Shema in Shacharit.
Women: Room Divider/Mechitza
Women: Room Divider/Mechitza
For women and room divider/mechitza, see Where To Pray: Distracting People/Mechitza.
Women: Saving a Life (Pikuach Nefesh)
Women: Saving a Life (Pikuach Nefesh): Driving to Hospital To Give Birth
See Saving a Life (Pikuach Nefesh).
Women: Shabbat
Women: When Shabbat Starts for Women
For when Shabbat starts for women, see Women Start Shabbat: Candle-Lighting or Sunset.
Women: When To Light Shabbat Candles
For delaying Shabbat candle lighting until sunset, see Shabbat: Candles: When To Light.
Women: How Many Shabbat Candles To Light
For how many Shabbat candles wives should light, see Shabbat Candles: How Many To Light.
Women: Where To Light Shabbat Candles
For where women should light Shabbat candles, see Shabbat: Candles: Where To Light.
Women: Who Lights Shabbat Candles
For priority order of family members to light Shabbat candles, see Shabbat: Candles: Who Lights.
Women: How To Bless over Shabbat Candles
For questions about the Shabbat candle lighting blessing, see Shabbat: Candles: How To Do Blessing: Women.
Women: When To Make Kiddush after Candle Lighting
For when women can make kiddush after Friday night candle lighting, see Shabbat: Candles: When To Light.
Women: Making Kiddush
For women's obligation to make or hear Shabbat kiddush, see Shabbat: Kiddush: Who May Make.
Women: Minimum Prayer before Saying Shabbat Kiddush
For women's minimum obligation to pray before saying Shabbat morning kiddush and eating, see Women and Minimum Prayer before Saying Shabbat Kiddush.
Women: Shabbat and Makeup
For women and makeup on Shabbat, see Shabbat: Makeup.
Women: Shaving
Women: Shaving
For women and shaving, see
Women and Razor Blades
When Haircuts and Shaving Are Forbidden
Women: Singing
Women: Singing with Men or When Men Present
Rabbi Heinemann's view is that women should not sing zmirot, Hallel, songs in the Hagada, and other prayers with men or when men are present, but he notes that there are other major opinions that say it is permitted.
Women: Humming
A girl or woman may hum in the presence of men and this does not violate the prohibition against singing in front of men (kol isha).
Women: Sofer
Women: Sofer
For Women and Sofer, see Sofer: Woman.
Women: Standing for Elderly
Women: Standing for Elderly
For women and standing for the elderly, see Standing for the Elderly.
Women: Study
What To Teach Girls
What To Teach Girls
Girls should be taught all halachot relevant to girls and women, including blessings, and should be taught whatever will increase their awe of Hashem (yir'at shamayim).
Women: Torah Scroll
Women Reading from Torah Scroll
Women may read from the Torah scroll when no men are around. They may say only the first blessing over the Torah and only if they forgot to say that blessing in the morning. They may not say the second blessing.
Women Dancing with Torah Scroll
Women should not dance with a Torah scroll.  
Women: What To Study
Minimum Torah Study for Women
For women and minimum requirements for Torah study, see Introduction to Torah Study.
Women: Torah or Tehillim
 If a woman can either study Torah or say Tehilim (Psalms; recited as prayers), the priority is for her to study any halachot that she needs to observe before saying Tehilim or other prayers.
Note However, for the purposes of prayer, saying Tehilim is more important than “saying” (or reading) other parts of Tanach.
Women: Studying Talmud
Women are not prohibited from learning Talmud, but men should not teach them.
NOTE Since women are not required to study Talmud, they do not make a siyum if they complete studying any part.
Women: Blessings over Torah
Women are required to say the blessings over the Torah (birchot haTorah) before studying Torah or before praying.
Women: Witnesses
Women: Witnesses
For women and witnesses, see Witnesses: Women in Jewish Courts.